Menene Ciwon Sikila (SICKLE CELL DISEASE)

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Jini wanda ake gani a zahiri idan mutum yaji ciwo ko kuma ya yanke jikinsa, yana ɗauke da abubuwa iri daban – daban, kamar su ‘plasma‛, ‘Red Blood Cells (RBC)’, ‘White Blood Cells (WBCs)‛, ‘Platelets‛ da sauransu.

Cutar sickler tana faruwa ne idan aka samu matsala a RBC.

RBC yana dauke da sinadarin ‘Haemoglobin (Hb)’ a cikinsa. Haemoglobin (Hb) kala – kala ne; akwai Haemoglobin A (HbA), Haemoglobin B (HbB), Haemoglobin C (Hbc), da sauransu. HbA shi ne lafiyayyen haemoglobin. Sauran Hb ɗin ba lafiyayyu bane.

Cutar sickler tana ɗaya daga cikin cututtukan da ake iya kauce musu kafin samuwarta. Idan kuma cutar ta samu, to tana da wahalar magani.

Ma’anar cutar sikila

Cutar sickler tana nufin mutum yana ɗauke da sinadaran haemoglobin guda biyu marasa kyau (ba lafiyayyu ba) a jikinsa. Ma’ana dai ya gaji gurɓatattun sinadaren haemoglobin daga wurin mahaifiya da mahaifi

Yadda ake samun cutar sikila

Ana samun cutar sickler ne daga wurin iyaye (uwa da uba). Uba shi kaɗai ba zai iya haifar ɗa/ƴa mai sickler ba haka ma uwa ita kaɗai ba za ta iya haifar ɗa/ƴa mai sickler ba. Dole sai da gudunmawar kowanne daga cikinsu (uwa da uba).

Ko wane mutum yana da sinadaren haemoglobin a jikinsa nau’i biyu. Zan yi magana akan haemoglobin A da kuma haemoglobin S kawai saboda su ne suka fi yawa. kowane mutum yana da ɗaya daga cikin waɗannan Haemoglobin ɗin:

(1) Haemoglobin AA (HbAA)

(2) Haemoglobin AS (HbAS)

(3) Haemoglobin SS (AbSS)

  • Wanda HbAA yana da lafiyayyun haemoglobin guda biyu.
  • Mai HbAS yana da lafiyayyen Haemoglobin guda ɗaya da kuma wanda ba lafiyayye ba (ba mai kyan ba) guda ɗaya
  • Mai HbSS yana da haemoglobin guda biyu marasa kyau.
  • Mai HbAA lafiya ƙalau yake. Ma’ana bashi da ciwon sickler.
  • Mai HbAS shima lafiya ƙalau yake, bashi da ciwon sickler amma zai iya haifar ɗa/ƴa mai sickler idan ya auri mai HbAS. Don haka, HbAS shi ake kira da ‚carrier‛
  • Mai HbSS, shi ne yake da ciwon sickler

Lokacin da za’a halicci mutum a cikin mahaifiyarsa, uwa tana bada gudunmawar haemoglobin guda ɗaya, sannan uba ma yana bada gudunmawar haemoglobin guda ɗaya.

Idan uba ya bada gudunmawar haemoglobin maras kyau (HbS) sannan uwa ma ta bada gudunmawar haemoglobin maras kyau (HbS), to tabbas ɗan da za’a haifa, zai kasance sickler ne (HbSS).

Ga dai yadda zata Kasance idan aka yi aure.

Iyaye (Uwa da Uba)

Yanayin ‘Ya’Ya

AA da AA AA a kowane Lokaci
AA da AS AA, ko Kuma AS
AS da AS AA ko AS ko SS
AS da SS AS ko kuma SS
SS da SS SS a kowane lokaci
AA da SS AS a kowane lokaci
Don haka, idan ana so a kaucewa cutar sikila, to kada ayi aure tsakanin.

‘AS’ da ‘AS’,

‘AS’ da ‘SS’,

‘SS’ da ‘SS’.

Alamomin cutar sikila

Suna bayyana ne tun yaro yana ƙarami a mafi yawancin lokaci. Alamomin sun haɗa da

  • Kumburin ƴan yatsu
  • Ciwon ƙashi mai tsanani
  • Dashewar jiki (ƙarancin jinni)
  • Ƙanƙantar jiki
  • Da sauransu
Illolin ciwon sikila

Ciwon sickler yana haifar da illoli daban – daban, kamar:

  • Yawan rashin lafiya akai – akai kamar ciiwon ƙashi, ƙirji, ciki da sauransu
  • Shanyewar ɓarin jiki (stroke)
  • Ciwon ƙoda
  • Rashin zuwa makaranta ko kuma yawan tangarɗar karatu
  • Yawan ƙarancin  jini
  • Shaye – shaye
  • Saurin mutuwa (mutuwa lokacin ƙuruciya da sauransu).
Maganin ciwon sikila

Babban maganin ciwon sickler shi ne kada ayi aure idan akwai yiwuwar a haifi ɗa mai sikila. Kuma ana iya gane haka ta hanyar yin gwajin genotype. Amma idan ciwon ya samu, to hanya ɗaya ce wadda ake iya maganin wannan cuta.

Ita ce, dashen ɓargo (Bone marrow transplant), shi wannan dashen ɓargo yana tare da irin tasa matsalolin kuma ba ko wane lokaci ake yin nasarar warkewa ba. Sannan kuma yana da tsada matuƙa da gaske.

Ana bawa masu sickler wasu magunguna domin samun sauƙin rashin lafiya akai akai. Shi ya sa ake so masu sickler su dinga zuwa wajen likita lokaci zuwa lokaci koda babu abinda suke ji na rashin lafiya.

Abubuwan da suke tayar da rashin lafiya ga masu ciwon sikila
  • Zafi mai tsanani
  • Zazzaɓi (ko na malaria ko kuma wani abu daban
  • Motsa jiki mai yawa
  • Ɓacin rai. Da sauransu

Don haka yana da kyau a kauce wa waɗannan abubuwan.

Kammalawa

Ciwon sickler yana saka rashin lafiya akai – akai, yana hana jin daɗin rayuwa, sannan kuma yana sanadiyar mutuwar mutum yana ƙarami. Ana iya kaucewa ciwon idan aka bi shawaawarin likitoci ta hanyar yin gwajin genotype.